Stacks Image 11
KVG Laboratories has extensive experience in archival re-recording and remastering of analog tapes and records.

TAPE FORMATS
  • Philips Compact Cassette (ordinary audio cassette).
    • Normal bias IEC-1 (tapes made on early Nakamichi cassette recorders).
    • Chrome bias IEC-1 (tapes made on early Nakamichi cassette recorders).
    • Metal bias IEC-1 (tapes made on early Nakamichi cassette recorders).
    • Normal bias IEC-2 (tapes made on all other brands of cassette recorders).
    • Chrome bias IEC-2 (tapes made on all other brands of cassette recorders).
    • Metal bias IEC-2 (tapes made on all other brands of cassette recorders).
    • Dolby B, Dolby C, DBX I, DBX II, JVC ANRS, and JVC SuperANRS noise reduction systems.
  • Mini-cassette.
  • Microcassette.
  • 1/4-inch reel-to-reel.
    • 1/4-track, 1/2-track or full track formats.
    • Monaural, stereo, or quadriphonic.
    • 1-5/8 ips, 3-3/4 ips, 7.5 ips, 15 ips, or 30 ips speeds.
    • NAB or IEC EQ playback curves.
    • DBX I and DBX II noise reduction systems.
    • Dolby A and Dolby SR noise reduction upon special request.
  • 1/2-inch reel-to-reel.
    • 1/4-track, 1/2-track or 8-track (Tascam 80-8) track formats.
    • Monaural, stereo, or 8-channel multitrack.
    • 15 ips or 30 ips speeds.
    • NAB or IEC EQ playback curves.
    • DBX I noise reduction systems.
    • Dolby A and Dolby SR noise reduction upon special request.
  • 8-track cartridges, both stereo and quadriphonic, with or without Dolby B noise reduction.
  • Magnetic wire, Webster-Chicago or Silvertone formats.

DISC FORMATS
  • 33-1/3 rpm 10" LP microgroove monaural or stereo, including 45/45 stereo or Emory Cook's parallel binaural format.
  • 33-1/3 rpm 12" LP microgroove monaural or stereo, including 45/45 stereo or Emory Cook's parallel binaural format.
  • 45 rpm microgroove monaural or stereo.
  • 16-2/3 rpm microgroove monaural or stereo audiobooks.
  • 78-rpm coarse groove records, all EQ formats (see below), 10" to 20” diameters.

CYLINDER FORMATS
  • Edison 2-minute.
  • Edison Blue Amberola (4-inch).
  • Columbia Graphophone.

SERVICES
We offer two levels of service:
  1. Straight Transfer: $35.00 Per Hour, 1 Hour Minimum. (Museum and not-for-profit excluded, inquire for rates.)
    • Archival cleaning of tape, disc or cylinder before playback.
    • Use of playback equalization setting that is closest to that specified by the original record label.
    • Playback speed set to nominal speed.
    • Removal of major record pops and ticks, and tape hiss.
    • Re-recording onto customer choice of analog cassette (no noise reduction, Dolby B or Dolby C), analog 7.5-ips reel-to-reel 1/4-track format, analog 7.5-ips reel-to-reel 1/2-track format, analog 15-ips reel-to-reel 1/2-track format, or common digital formats: MP3, WAV, AIFF, OGG, FLAC, AAC Lossless encoding, Red Book CD, Orange Book CD-R, at any sample rate up to 24-bit/96 kHz or any compressed digital format fixed bit rate or variable bit rate.
  1. Full Remastering: $75.00 Per Hour, 4 Hour Minimum. (Museum and not-for-profit excluded, inquire for rates.)
    • Archival cleaning of tape, disc or cylinder before playback.
    • Use of playback equalization setting that is closest to that specified by the original record label.
    • Optimization of tape or disc playback equalization to compensate for deviations from standard equalization and for record wear.
    • Playback speed adjusted by our musicologist to achieve accurate pitch and tempo during the playback.
    • Removal of major record pops and ticks, and tape hiss.
    • Extensive denoising and sound enhancement to make the recording as high fidelity as possible.
    • Correction or enhancement of stereophonic spatial imaging (stereophonic records only).
    • Re-recording onto customer choice of analog cassette (no noise reduction, Dolby B or Dolby C), analog 7.5-ips reel-to-reel 1/4-track format, analog 7.5-ips reel-to-reel 1/2-track format, analog 15-ips reel-to-reel 1/2-track format, or common digital formats: MP3, WAV, AIFF, OGG, FLAC, AAC Lossless encoding, Red Book CD, Orange Book CD-R, at any sample rate up to 24-bit/96 kHz or any compressed digital format (fixed bit rate or variable bit rate).

Disc Equalization Curves
The following list of Disc Playback Equalization Curves are those that we have determined through extensive research and experimentation that provide the most satisfactory reproduction of the greatest possible selection of nearly all of the more prominent record labels. Smaller or obscure record labels often adopted the standard of a major label, so the more obscure labels can be accommodated by these same equalization curves.
The standards have been denoted by two numbers separated by a slash. A letter "F" in the standard's name denotes "Flat." Following each standard's name is a list of prominent record labels who adopted that standard. Record label names following a semicolon are not exactly compliant with the cited standard but are close enough to that standard to achieve a satisfactory playback, especially if additional equalization is applied.
  1. 150/5800: Decca 1930s
  2. 200/5500: Columbia, Victor, some small U.S. labels,
  3. 250/6360: London/Decca FFRR 1949 (microgroove discs, early LPs until 1955)
  4. 250F: Columbia, EMI, HMV, Blumlein, EMI
  5. 350/3180: CCIR, IEC; Columbia 1938, London FFRR, EMS
  6. 400/2700: Esoteric, Decca, Urania, Decca 1934, Concert Hall, Colosseum, Capitol, Mercury, Cetra-Soria, Westminster; Lyrachord
  7. 400/5500: RCA Victor, some small U.S. labels, some small European labels
  8. 400F: Most U.S. mid-1930s Labels other than RCA Victor, Columbia, MGM
  9. 450/2700: London FFRR coarse groove, London International, Ducretet-Thomson
  10. 500/1600: Vanguard, Vox, Decca, Lyrichord, HMV, Urania, Westminster, Folkways, Polymusic, Audio Fidelity, Concert Hall, Columbia, Cetra-Soria, Boston, Bach Guild, Oceanic, Overtone, Haydn Society, Remington, Colosseum, Epic; AES, NAB
  11. Enhanced RIAA: U.S. 33-1/3 rpm and 45 rpm microgroove LPs from some esoteric audiophile labels.
  12. RIAA (IEC): European and British LPs from 1955 to recent; some esoteric audiophile labels.
  13. RIAA (New Orthophonic): U.S. 33-1/3 rpm LPs from 1954 to recent excluding esoteric audiophile labels.
  14. RIAA (RCA Revision): U.S. 45 rpm large hole singles.
  15. 500F: Brunswick, Parlophone, Westrex, Vitaphone (1927 - 1933), most electrically-recorded U.S. 78s between 1910 and 1935.
  16. 500/2700: RCA Victor, Angel, MGM, some obscure Asian and European labels.
  17. 500/5500: Concert Hall, Ouiseau-lyre, some obscure Asian and European labels.
  18. 629/1600: Batok, Caedmon, some obscure Asian and European labels.
  19. 629/3000: RCA Victor, some obscure Asian and European labels.
  20. 800/5500: RCA Victor, some obscure Asian and European labels.
  21. Flat: Edison, Berliner, most discs recorded before 1910.

House Engineer Kermit V. Gray has been doing archival re-recording since 1987, when he was an assistant engineer (together with the late R. L. "Mac" Macdonald, who was a legend in archival work) for the Marr Sound Archive when it first began. Kermit assisted in the initial design, installation and operation of the archive's re-recording system. He was trained in archival re-recording by engineers from the Library of Congress, Steve Smolian and Robert L. "Mac" MacDonald. Kermit's prior experience as both an equipment designer and as a LP mastering engineer in the 1970's is a definite advantage in his archival re-recording work. He hears problems and details in analog disc recordings that few others hear.

Partial Equipment List
  • Custom Signal Restoration and Enhancement software running on our Macintosh Digital Audio Workstation.
  • Rabco ST7 straight-line tracking turntable, with Ortofon VMS-20 and Stanton 681EEE each with custom-made truncated elliptical styli. Turntable is highly modified, mounted on a custom-engineered isolation platform, and fitted with a record clamping system to ensure disc flatness during reproduction.
  • Dual 1218 turntable for 78-rpm records, with Shure V-15 Type IV and Stanton 681EEE each with custom-made truncated elliptical styli. Turntable is highly modified, mounted on a custom-engineered isolation platform, and fitted with a record clamping system to ensure disc flatness during reproduction.
  • Dual 1009-SK turntable for 16-2/3 rpm Audiobook records, with Shure V-15 Type III and Stanton 681EEE each with custom-made truncated elliptical styli. Turntable is highly modified, mounted on a custom-engineered isolation platform, and fitted with a record clamping system to ensure disc flatness during reproduction.
  • Several custom styli of differing diameters and profiles to ensure that each disc record is correctly tracked because the stylus fits the groove precisely.
  • KVG Laboratories 76EQ phono preamplifier equipped to compensate for nearly all known record playback equalization characteristics.
  • KVG Laboratories K-DAW II Disc Archivist software, running on Apple iMac 2 GHz Intel, with Universal Audio ADA convertors.
  • Realistic 8-track player (modified)
  • Revox A77 Dolby (highly modified).
  • Revox B77-HS (highly modified).
  • Revox B710 Mk. II stereo cassette recorder (highly modified).
  • Tascam 80-8 reel-to-reel (highly modified).
  • TEAC A3440 reel-to-reel (highly modified for archival uses).
  • Nakamichi 600 stereo cassette recorder.
  • Pioneer CT-5151 stereo cassette recorder.
  • Pioneer CT-F9191 stereo cassette recorder.
  • Wollensak 2551AV cassette to recover audiovisual cassette tape and cue tones.
  • Webster-Chicago 80 wire recorder.
  • Philips Minicassette recorder
  • Philips Microcassette recorder
  • Uher 4000 Report S reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • Uher 4000 Report L reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • Uher 4000 Report IC reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • Uher 4000 Report Monitor reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • Uher 4200 Report L reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce stereo 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • Uher 4400 Report IC reel-to-reel tape recorder to reproduce stereo 1-7/8 and 15/16-ips interview and surveillance recordings.
  • DBX 117 Compressor/Expander (modified).
  • KVG Laboratories 82A Dynamics Processor (compressor/expander).
  • KVG Laboratories SC-2A Studio Consolette.
  • Symetrix 422 automatic gain control.
  • KVG Laboratories 91SG Spatial Image Optimizer.
  • KVG Laboratories 92MPQ Mastering Program Equalizer.
  • KVG Laboratories 96CMPS Correlator Precision Metering System.
  • Shure AudioMaster (EQ system) [highly modified].
  • Burwen TNE-7000 Transient Noise Eliminator (record declicker).
  • SAE 5000A Transient Noise Reduction (record declicker).
  • DBX 150.
  • DBX 155.
  • DBX 222.
  • DBX 224.
  • Advent 101 Dolby B unit (modified).
  • Stanton 310 preamplifier (modified).
  • Crown D-75 stereo amplifier.
  • KVG Laboratories L-81G Spatial Image Reference Loudspeakers.
  • Edison Standard Cylinder Phonograph, circa 1903, fitted with KVG Laboratories custom engineered pickup system.
  • VPI HW-16.5 Archival Vacuum Disc Record Cleaning Machine.
Stacks Image 15